Today, most of us know Honouliuli by its cities of ‘Ewa, ‘Ewa Beach, Kapolei and Makakilo, with their residential subdivisions and shopping malls. Many older residents remember a sparsely-populated landscape dominated by sugar cane fields. A few old-timers remember the ranches of Honouliuli that preceded the plantations. No one alive today witnessed the sweeping changes of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries; we know them only by historical records and oral tradition. Further back in time, the traditional Hawaiian period is recorded in legend and archaeology. The long period before Polynesians discovered Hawai‘i can only be reconstructed through the study of paleontology and the scientifically important plant and animal remains recovered from Honouliuli sinkholes.