Hawaiian Traditions

Ka‘uluakāha‘i (The Breadfruit Tree of Kāha‘i) at Kuālaka‘i

As cited in the tradition of Nāmakaokapāo‘o, Ka‘uluakāha‘i was the true father of Nāmakaokapāo‘o. In Fornander’s account, following his victory over the king of O‘ahu, Nāmakaokapāo‘o traveled to Kuālaka‘i where a supernatural breadfruit tree grew in a sinkhole-cave, and where royal gifts left to him were hidden by his father. Retrieving the items from Kuālaka‘i, Nāmakaokapāo‘o then traveled to Hawai‘i:

Tradition of Nāmakaokapāo‘o (Eyes of the goby fish)

There are several traditions pertaining to a youth by the name of Nāmakaokapāo‘o that have been published in the Hawaiian-language newspapers, with lengthy accounts in print between 1894 and 1917. The earliest reference identified while preparing this study was published in a short rebuttal by a native of Honouliuli to another writer in the Hawaiian newspaper Ka Lahui Hawaii. While the February 17, 1877 account is a short one, it references the sweet potato fields of Nāmakaokapāo‘o, observing that Nāmakaokapāo‘o is the skilled fighter of the cliffs of Līhu‘e.

A Hawaiian Tradition of Keliikau o Kau

Keli‘ikau-o-Ka‘ū was a shark god who traveled to Pu‘uloa, ‘Ewa from the island of Hawai‘i. The tradition, entitled “He Moolelo Kaao Hawaii no Keliikau o Kau,” appears only in the short-run Hawaiian-language newspaper Home Rula Repubalika and is incomplete. The narratives are also different in relationship to the events and their outcome, than those found in more widely reported narratives. There is no specific reference to the source of the account, and only two articles in the series are available.

The Hawaiian Tradition of Pakaa and Ku-a-Pakaa, the Trusted Attendants of Keawenuiaumi, the King of Hawaii, and the Grandson of Laamaomao!

In 1901, Moses Nakuina published the tradition of Kū-a-Pāka‘a and the supernatural wind-gourd of La‘amaomao (Ka-ipu-makani-o-Laa-mao-mao), entitled “Moolelo Hawaii o Pakaa a me Ku-a-Pakaa na Kahu Iwikuamoo o Keawenuiaumi Ke Alii o Hawaii, a o na Moopuna hoi a Laamaomao!” which translates as the section title above. The tradition includes references to winds from each of the Hawaiian Islands. On O‘ahu, the following winds were named for lands of the Kona and ‘Ewa Districts:

…Helu aku la o Ku-a-Pakaa i na makani o Oahu, penei:

A Hawaiian Tradition of Laukaieie

Hawaiian historian Moses (Mose) Manu penned several lengthy traditions for the native newspaper Nupepa Ka Oiaio in which he included detailed accounts of a wide range of practices, including those associated with fisheries and deified guardians of the ocean and freshwater fisheries. This account, “He Moolelo Kaao Hawaii no Laukaieie…,” was published between January 5, 1894 and September 13, 1895.